Nutrition and Food Science
Nutrition is the science that interprets the interaction of nutrients and other substances in food in relation to maintenance, growth, reproduction, health and disease of an organism. It includes food intake, absorption, assimilation, biosynthesis, catabolism, and excretion. The diet of an organism is what it eats, which is largely determined by the availability and palatability of foods. For humans, a healthy diet includes preparation of food and storage methods that preserve nutrients from oxidation, heat or leaching, and that reduce risk of foodborne illnesses. An unhealthy diet can cause deficiency-related diseases such as blindness, anemia, scurvy, preterm birth, stillbirth and cretinism, or nutrient excess health-threatening conditions such as obesity and metabolic syndrome; and such common chronic systemic diseases as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and osteoporosis. This session discusses more about food science and nutrition.
Nutrition and Health
A healthy diet helps protect against malnutrition in all its forms, as well as noncommunicable diseases or NCDs, including diabetes, heart disease, stroke and cancer. Energy intake of calories should be in balance with energy expenditure. Evidence indicates that total fat should not exceed 30% of total energy intake to avoid unhealthy weight gain. Intake of saturated fats should be less than 10 % of total energy intake and trans-fats to less than 1% of total energy intake, with a shift in fat consumption away from saturated fats and trans-fats to unsaturated fats and towards the elimination of industrial transfats. Limiting intake of free sugars to less than 10% of total energy intake is part of a healthy diet. This session discusses more about nutrition and health.
The interest in food toxicology is evident by the dependency of humankind on nutrition by virtue of their heterotrophic metabolism. By means of modern biochemistry, molecular and cell biology, computer science, bioinformatics as well as high-throughput and high-content screening technologies it has been possible to identify adverse effects and characterize potential toxicants in food. Integration of food toxicology data obtained throughout biochemical and cell-based in vitro, animal in vivo and human clinical settings has enabled the establishment of alternative, highly predictable in silico models. The mechanisms of toxicant actions are multifactorial but many toxic effects converge on the generation of oxidative stress and chronic inflammation resulting in cell death, aging and degenerative diseases. This session discusses more about food toxicology.
Food Science and Technology
Food science draws from many disciplines such as biology, chemical engineering, and biochemistry in an attempt to better understand food processes and ultimately improve food products for the general public. Food scientists study the physical, microbiological, and chemical makeup of food. And they are responsible for developing the safe, nutritious foods and innovative packaging that line supermarket shelves everywhere. The food you consume on a daily basis is the result of extensive food research, a systematic investigation into a variety of foods’ properties and compositions. After the initial stages of research and development comes the mass production of food products using principles of food technology. This session discusses more about food science and technology.
Plant Nutrition and Nutraceuticals
Plant nutrition is the study of the chemical elements and compounds necessary for plant growth, plant metabolism and their external supply. The essential plant nutrients include carbon, oxygen and hydrogen which are absorbed from the air, whereas other nutrients including nitrogen are typically obtained from the exceptions include some parasitic or carnivorous plants. There are seventeen most important nutrients for plants. Plants obtain the following mineral nutrients from their growing medium. They are the macronutrients: nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), sulfur (S), magnesium (Mg), carbon (C), oxygen(O), hydrogen (H) the micronutrients (or trace minerals): iron (Fe), boron (B), chlorine (Cl), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni). This session discusses more about plant nutrition and nutraceuticals.
Food Processing & Technology
Food processing is the transformation of raw ingredients, by physical or chemical means into food, or of food into other forms. Food processing combines raw food ingredients to produce marketable food products that can be easily prepared and served by the consumer. Food processing typically involves activities such as mincing and macerating, liquefaction, emulsification, and cooking such as boiling, broiling, frying, or grilling; pickling, pasteurization, and many other kinds of preservation; and canning or other packaging. Food Processing and Technology includes a set of physical, chemical or microbiological methods and techniques used to transmute raw ingredients into food and its transformation into other forms in food processing industry. Food Processing & Technology covers topics such as food processing, food technology, food safety, food industry, food allergy, food microbiology, food biotechnology, food allergy, food addiction, food fortification, food nanotechnology. This session discusses more about food processing and technology.
Chemical Composition of Food
It is important to have the chemical composition of food. As a basis for the nutritional and dietetic management of persons with various diseases, it is necessary first of all to have accurate information about the chemical composition of foods. Chemical analysis of food samples carried out in analytical laboratories is typically the preferred method for creating FCD. The food samples are carefully chosen using a defined sampling plan to ensure that they are representative of the foods being consumed. Food composition data are detailed sets of information on the nutritionally important components of foods and provide values for energy and nutrients including protein, carbohydrates, fat, vitamins and minerals and for other important food components such as fibre. This session discusses more about chemical composition of food.
Organic and Natural Foods
Organic food refers to items that are produced using fewer artificial but beneficial means. Stringent standards for organic food production, handling, and processing exist throughout the world. Items are minimally synthesized. There is no evidence to prove that organic food is healthier than non-organic food. People prefer organic food because they feel that it is safer than conventional food as chemicals are not used in its production. However, recent research on the health benefits of organic milk has boosted the spirits of organic food lovers. Recent research suggests that choosing organic food can lead to increased intake of nutritionally desirable antioxidants and reduced exposure to toxic heavy metals. This session discusses more about organic and natural foods.
Food Science & Chemistry
Food chemistry is the study of chemical processes and interactions of all biological and non-biological components of foods. Food Science and Chemistry encompasses how products change under certain food processing techniques and ways either to enhance or to prevent them from happening. The biological substances include such items as meat, poultry, lettuce, beer, and milk as examples. It is similar to biochemistry in its main components such as carbohydrates, lipids, and protein, but it also includes areas such as water, vitamins, minerals, enzymes, food additives, flavours, and colours. An example of enhancing a process would be to encourage fermentation of dairy products with microorganisms that convert lactose to lactic acid; an example of preventing a process would be stopping the browning on the surface of freshly cut apples using lemon juice or other acidulated water. This session discusses more about food science and chemistry.
Food additives are substances added to food to preserve flavour or enhance its taste, appearance, or other qualities. Some additives have been used for centuries; for example, preserving food by pickling with vinegar, salting, as with bacon, preserving sweets or using sulphur dioxide as with wines. With the advent of processed foods in the second half of the twentieth century, many more additives have been introduced, of both natural and artificial origin. Food additives include substances that may be introduced to food indirectly called indirect additives in the manufacturing process, through packaging, or during storage or transport. Food additives can be divided into several groups because some additives exert more than one effect. For example, salt is both a preservative as well as a flavour. This session discusses more about food additives.
Chemistry of Food Constituents
Knowledge of the constituents of foods and their properties is central to food science. Food is composed of three main groups of constituents, carbohydrates, proteins, and fats, and derivatives of these. In addition, there is a group of inorganic mineral components, and a diverse group of organic substances present in comparatively small proportions that include such substances as the vitamins, enzymes, emulsifiers, acids, oxidants, antioxidants, pigments, and flavours. There is also the ever-present and very important constituent, water. These are so arranged in different foods as to give the foods their structure, texture, flavour, colour, and nutritive value. The above constituents occur in foods naturally. This session discusses more about chemistry of food constituents.
Food and Nutritional Toxicology
Food and Nutritional Toxicology provides a broad overview of the chemicals in food that have the potential to produce adverse health effects. In some instances foods also contain substances that can be toxic if consumed in large amounts. It covers the impact on human health of food containing environmental contaminants or natural toxicants, food additives, the migration of chemicals from packaging materials into foods, and the persistence of feed and food contaminants in food products. It addresses the adverse effects of nutrient excesses, the impact of contaminants on nutrient utilization, metabolism of food toxicants, and the relationship of the body's biologic defence mechanisms to such toxicants. This session discusses on the risk determination process, food safety regulation, and the current status of the regulatory processes.
Genetically Modified Organisms
A genetically modified organism or GMO is any organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques which is a genetically engineered organism. Genetically modified organisms are used to produce many medications and genetically modified foods and are widely used in scientific research and the production of other goods. The term GMO is very close to the technical legal term, living modified organism defined in the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, which regulates international trade in living GMOs specifically any living organism that possesses a novel combination of genetic material obtained through the use of modern biotechnology. A more specifically defined type of GMO is a transgenic organism. This is an organism whose genetic makeup has been altered by the addition of genetic material from an unrelated organism.
Food nanotechnology has come a long way. The potential applications in the area of functional food by engineering biological molecules toward functions very different from those they have in nature, opening up a whole new area of research and development. There seems to be no limit to what food technologists are prepared to do to our food and nanotechnology will give them a whole new set of tools to go to new extremes. But there are also a lot of positives. The potentially beneficial effects of nanotechnology-enabled innovations could have on our foods and subsequently, on our health. Food is nanofood when nanoparticles, nanotechnology techniques or tools are used during cultivation, production, processing, or packaging of the food. It does not mean atomically modified food or food produced by nanomachines. This session discusses more about food nanotechnology.
Nutrigenomics is a branch of nutritional genomics and is the study of the effects of foods and food constituents on gene expression. Nutrigenomics has been associated with the idea of personalized nutrition based on genotype. It is a field of research focusing on identifying and understanding molecular-level interaction between nutrients and other dietary bioactives with the genome. Nutrigenomics studies the influence of genetic variation on nutrition by correlating gene expression or SNPs with a nutrient's absorption, metabolism, elimination or biological effects. The field aims to enhance rational means to optimize nutrition with respect to an individual's genotype. By determining the mechanism of the effects of nutrients or the effects of a nutritional regime, nutrigenomics tries to define the causality or relationship between these specific nutrients and specific nutrient regimes or diets on human health. This session discusses more about nutrigenomics.
Current Research in Nutrition and Dietetics
Current research in nutrition and dietetics focuses mainly on food safety. It encompasses actions aimed at ensuring that all food is as safe as possible. Food safety policies and actions need to cover the entire food chain, from production to consumption in research. Foods have potentially positive effect on health beyond basic nutrition. They promote optimal health and help reduce the risk of disease. A familiar example of a functional food is oatmeal because it contains soluble fiber that can help lower cholesterol levels. Dietetics is the science of applying insight in food and nutrition to improve and maintain good health. It is the study which deals with the regulation of diet, health and hygiene. A registered dietetian can work in variety of places and have diversity in work functions. This session discusses more about current research in nutrition and dietetics.
Diet in Obesity and Underweight
Weight disorders can have an effect on the health status and the general well-being of a person. Various health problems have been linked with weight disorders. Those who are underweight have an increased risk of anaemia, heart irregularities or possible disorders of malnutrition, whereas those who are overweight or obese have an increased risk of coronary heart disease or type 2 diabetes. To overcome these problems diet and exercise play a significant role on the prevalence of various weight groups among medical students. Most students who do not exercise and eat a diet rich in carbohydrates have high weight prevalence while most low weight students are on protein diet. Delving deeper into the contents of diet and exercise frequency and intensity would give a richer result but analysis may be more tasking. This session discusses more about diet in obesity and underweight.
Role of Nutrition in Disease Prevention
Diseases can be prevented by properly storing, cooking, cleaning, and handling food despite having nutritional foods to consume. Optimum nutrition is the cornerstone of good health and helps in disease prevention. The foods we eat, and the nutrients it provides are the most important factors influencing our growth, development, functional abilities, and health. Nutritional knowledge is critical if we are to succeed in significantly reducing the excessive premature morbidity and mortality from our leading killer diseases such as heart disease, cancer, and stroke. How we structure our lifestyles with proper nutrition, health habit discipline, and exercise programming will have a great influence on personal health and will help reduce our current catastrophic medical care expenditures. This session discusses more about the role of nutrition in disease prevention.
Paediatric nutrition looks at infant nutrition from birth and through the first year of life. Good quality foods in infancy and childhood promote optimum growth and development during that time. Paediatric nutrition play a role in helping to prevent obesity and some diseases of adulthood, particularly non-communicable diseases, such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes and some cancers. Ensuring a good nutritional start for the paediatric population will help reduce morbidity and mortality later in life. In preterm infants, the complex enteral nutritional management may reduce expensive hospital stay and may significantly increase later neurodevelopment and IQ. This session discusses more about paediatric nutrition.
Synthetic Foods are those that have been produced or manufactured using new methods with the help of advancements in technology. These types of foods usually contain a high amount of protein. Synthetic foods are developed from food substances that have been chemically synthesized. Synthetic foods are also known as artificial foods, these foods generally imitate the appearance, odour and taste of natural foods. There is very little supply of food that contains complete proteins. Complete protein foods refer to foods that contain all amino acids that are not produced by the body. Synthetic foods are created by the combination of food substances subjecting to different modern processes in order to obtain the desired food product. This session discusses more about synthetic foods.
Probiotics have been defined live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit to the host. They have been used for centuries in the form of dairy-based fermented products, but the potential use of probiotics as a form of medical nutrition therapy has not received formal recognition. Medical conditions that have to be treated with probiotics include diarrhea, gastroenteritis, irritable bowel syndrome, and inflammatory bowel disease Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, cancer, depressed immune function, inadequate lactase digestion, infant allergies, failure-to-thrive, hyperlipidemia, hepatic diseases, Helicobacter pylori infections, genitourinary tract infections, and others. The use of probiotics should be further investigated for possible benefits and side-effects in patients affected by these medical conditions. This session discusses more about probiotic nutrition.
Nutrition and Cancer
Cancer and cancer treatments may cause side effects that affect nutrition and cause malnutrition. Good nutrition is important for cancer patients. Healthy eating habits are important during and after cancer treatment. Anorexia and cachexia are common causes of malnutrition in cancer patients. Good nutrition is important for cancer patients. Nutrition is a process in which food is taken in and used by the body for growth, to keep the body healthy, and to replace tissue. Eating the right kinds of foods before, during, and after cancer treatment can help the patient feel better and stay stronger. A healthy diet includes eating and drinking enough of the foods and liquids that have important nutrients vitamins, minerals, protein, carbohydrates, fat, and water the body needs. This session discusses more about nutrition and cancer.
Clinical nutrition is nutrition for patients in a health care setup. Clinical in this sense refers to the management of patients including not only outpatients at clinics but also inpatients in hospitals. It incorporates primarily the scientific fields of nutrition and dietetics. It aims to keep a healthy energy balance in patients as well as providing sufficient amounts other nutrients such as protein, vitamins, and minerals. The main causes of clinical malnutrition are cachexia caused by diseases, injuries and or aging; difficulties with ingestion, such as stroke, paresis, dementia, depression, dysphagia; clinical malnutrition may also be aggravated by iatrogenic factors such as the inability of a health care entity to appropriately compensate for causes of malnutrition. This session discusses more about clinical nutrition.
Livestock nutrition is primarily concerned with six different food groups. All of which serve a specific purpose in maintaining livestock health, weight, and product viability. They are carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen and provide energy to animals; proteins contain nitrogen that supplies rumen microorganism requirements and provides another source of energy to animals; fats have a higher ratio of calories per unit of weight than carbohydrates and sugars and can increase energy density in feed portions; and water is a basic requirement for all animals to survive and thrive; vitamins are organic nutrients that increase an animal's resistance to diseases while also help maintain body functions; and minerals are inorganic elements that aid in maintaining health, and supporting growth and reproduction. This session discusses more about livestock nutrition.
Vitamins, Minerals and Enzymes
Enzymes are very large and complex protein molecules. Enzymes run the biochemical reactions in living things including humans, animals, and plants. This means that enzymes do the work in the body whereas vitamins and minerals also known as coenzymes are only building blocks. Enzymes are a natural part of vegetables, fruits, grains, and other raw food. Vitamins and minerals are considered essential nutrients because acting in concert; they perform hundreds of roles in the body. They help shore up bones, heal wounds, and bolster your immune system. They also convert food into energy, and repair cellular damage. Vitamins and minerals are often called micronutrients because your body needs only tiny amounts of them. This session discusses more about Vitamins, Minerals and Enzymes.
Food Borne Diseases
Foodborne diseases take a major toll on health. Millions of people fall ill and many die as a result of eating unsafe food. Foodborne illnesses are infections or irritations of the gastrointestinal or GI tract caused by food or beverages that contain harmful bacteria, parasites, viruses, or chemicals. The GI tract is a series of hollow organs joined in a long, twisting tube from the mouth to the anus. Common symptoms of foodborne illnesses include vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, fever, and chills. Most foodborne illnesses are acute and happen suddenly and last a short time, and most people recover on their own without treatment. Rarely, foodborne illnesses may lead to more serious complications. This session discusses more about foodborne diseases.
Sports nutrition is the study and practice of nutrition and diet with regards to improving anyone's athletic performance. Nutrition is an important part of many sports training regimens, being popular in strength sports such as weightlifting and bodybuilding and endurance sports like cycling, running, swimming, and rowing. Sports Nutrition focuses its studies on the type, as well as the quantity of fluids and food taken by an athlete. Dietary supplements contain one or more dietary ingredients including vitamins; minerals; amino acids; herbs or other botanicals; and other substances or their constituents is intended to be taken by mouth as a pill, capsule, tablet, or liquid. Athletes may choose to consider taking dietary supplements to assist in improving their athletic performance. This session discusses more about sports nutrition.